National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Program (NIDDCP)

 
Salt Iodiasation Program in INDIA
The Salt iodisation programme in India dates back to late 50’s when the classical study of Professor V. Ramalingaswamy and his associates in Kangra Valley of Himachal Pradesh established Iodine Deficiency as the causative factor for endemic goiter and consuming salt iodised with potassium iodate as the most economic and easiest means of its prevention and control in a population.
                    Encouraged with the results of the experience gained in the Kangra Valley, Government of India launched the National Goiter Control Programme (NGCP) in 1962. One of the objectives of the programme was to supply iodised salt in place of common salt to all the identified and notified goiter endemic areas in the country. Initially, only public sector undertakings were permitted to produce iodised salt. The Government of India, with the help of WHO and UNICEF set up Iodisation plants at Sambhar Lake (Rajasthan), Kharagoda (Gujarat) and Howrah (West Bengal) with a total annual installed capacity of 3.85 lakh tones.  Supplies of iodised salt to the goitre endemic areas were arranged in consultation with the concerned State Governments.  Sale of common salt for edible purposes was banned in the goitre-endemic areas by Notifications issued by the State Governments under the Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954.  The production from the above units was only about 2 lakh tones per annum, out of which about 1 lakh tones was supplied to Nepal.  Their production could not meet the requirement of all endemic areas till 1983.
                   The Government of India, therefore, reviewed the programme in 1983 and announced policy liberalization to promote production of iodised salt
 
bullet In order to meet the demand for iodised salt, the policy on production of iodised salt was liberalized allowing private sector participation.
 
bullet Appointment of a Working Group on Salt Technology in 1983 under Chairmanship of the Salt Commissioner to suggest methods to upgrade the technology of production of common and iodised salt
 
bullet Recognising IDD as a national health problem, the Government of India formed a Study Group under the Chairmanship of Salt Commissioner in 1984 to go into various aspects of iodisation programme and to suggest measures to achieve universal iodisation of salt.
The Government of India accepted the recommendations of the Working Group and Study Group, and on the advice of the Central Council of Health in 1984 took a historic decision to iodize the entire edible salt in a phased manner by 1992 and included in the Seventh Five Year Plan (1985-1990) of Government of India. It was also included in the 20 Point Programme announced in 1986.
Salt Commissioner’s Organization under the Ministry of Commerce & Industry, Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion, is the Nodal Agency for monitoring the production and quality of iodized salt at the production level & ensuring its equitable distribution in the country.  The Programmed was also renamed in 1992 as National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Programmed (NIDDCP).
PROGRESS OF UNIVERSAL SALT IODISATION (USI):
The sustained efforts of Salt Commissionerate over the last two decades in implementing the policy initiatives and the cooperation of the salt manufacturers have resulted in significant progress on Salt Iodisation Status in the country.  Some of the achievements are:-
 
bullet 807 salt iodisation units including 42 refineries (capacity 37.6 lakh MT) with a total installed capacity of 116 lakh tones have been established as on 31-12-2005; the capacity established is more than double the requirement of salt for human consumption in the country
 
bullet The production of iodised salt which was about 2 lakh tones in 1983 is now about 48.9 lakh tones during 2005
 
bullet About 32.3 per cent of iodised salt produced is refined iodised salt
 
bullet The estimated supplies of iodised salt within the country during 2005 was 46.4 lakh tones against the annual requirement of 54 lakh tones for human consumption thereby providing access of iodised salt to about 80 – 85 per cent of the population
 
bullet The National Family Health Survey, II (1998-99) revealed that 71 per cent of the households are consuming iodised salt; 49 per cent of the households are consuming adequately iodised salt
 
bullet As per the Monitoring Information system Reports received from State Health Authority from 12 states during 2005, about 73.7 per cent of the samples of iodised salt tested iodometrically were found to conform to the prescribed standard
 
bullet Salt Department facilitated establishment of 18 potassium iodate manufacturing units in the country.  More than adequate production capacity is available in the country to meet the demand of potassium iodate for production of iodised salt to meet the entire human consumption
 
bullet Due to sustained efforts of Salt commissionerate with State governments, Iodised salt now finds place in the Public distribution System in the States of Chhatisgarh, Jharkand, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamilnadu, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tripura, Arunachal Pradesh, Orissa, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana and Assam thereby enabling access of iodised salt to BPL population.

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